воскресенье, 19 июля 2009 г.

Private Sector 2

However, it dramatically increased the number of Swedes, who aktsiyami.Eto explained as a reduction of private equity portfolios of individual owners, as well as the rapidly growing number of companies listed on the Stockholm Stock birzhe.Vazhnuyu the role played by the emergence of a new group of individual owners of the shares after the creation in 1978 various joint-stock-investment fondov.Sberezheniya in these so-called global funds managed by banks or companies receive a variety of tax subsidies from the government. Until 1984, investors received a discount of 30% tax on their annual savings, in addition to non-taxable dividend and increase shareholder value. In 1984, the tax credit was abolished, but other drivers were. In 1985, for these investment funds accounted for 6% of the shares, and this share has continued to grow gradually.


In recent years, great interest in Swedish stocks showed foreign investors. By the end of 1985, they accounted for approximately 7% of the value of all shares. In addition, several Swedish companies have appeared on some zapadnoevro-European stock exchanges, as well as in New York and Tokyo, because of their desire-to eat better than in Sweden, the financial condition and the additional advertising-mu abroad.


The economy of Sweden is characterized by high levels of concentration of production and capital and monopolization in the leading industries. For large enterprises (employing over 500 people) holds about 40% of employment in industry and in small (up to 50 people) - 17%. This increase in concentration shown by the first and foremost at the level of large firms. In one of the 20 largest companies in labor-ed more than 40% of the workforce in the industry. The share of 200 largest companies lines accounted for 75% of output, employment, investment and exports of Sweden.


In recent years, the role of leading Swedish companies in the world economy has increased. In 1987, among the 500 largest non-US industrial companies there were 20 Swedish. Of course, one of the giants of the capitalist world, they are not included. Thus, a major Swedish company Volvo in size yields about turnover of almost 7 times the company the number one capitalist peace "General model torz" (15 billion dollars to 102 billion U.S. dollars) Leading Swedish industrial firms have a strong international orientation.


The economy of Sweden is very high monopolization proizvodstva.Ona most strong in such specialized industries as the manufacturing of ball bearings (SKF), automotive (Volvo and Saab-Scania), ferrous metallurgy (Svenska less) Electrical Engineering (Electrolux, ABB, Eriks-son "), woodworking, pulp and paper (Svenska cellulose," "students-ra", "Mu Dumshe app", etc.), aircraft (Saab-Scania) , pharmaceuticals (Ast-RA, Farmasia "), production of special steels (" Sandvik "," Avesta ").


In Sweden, a most powerful financial capital among North Europe accurate. He found its organizational expression in the financial group. Currently in Sweden, there are three financial groups. In chapter two of them (as adopted in the economic literature, the Swedish language "areas of the banks") are the leading private commercial banks - Skandinaviska enshilda Bank and Svenska handelsbanken ", with the first for all indicators lyam significantly surpasses its competitor. In the first half of the 80-ies on the formation of a third-chalos Financial Group (the "third bloc"), headed by the country's largest company - motor corporation "Volvo".


In the financial group Skandinaviska enshilda Bank, which controls 40% of exports, 20% of the country's GDP and provides 40% of employment in the industry of Sweden, consists of family groups Wallenberg, UNSO-new, Bonerov, Lundberg, Sederbergov. Among them stands out Wallén Berg family controlling the company, shareholder value of which exceeds 1 / 3 of the share capital of all listed firms. In general, approximately 25 companies have Wallenberg in 1986, turnover of CZK 250 billion and profits of about 18 billion kroner. In Sweden and abroad for their companies employ approximately 450 people. Wallenberg Empire is considered one of the largest in Western Europe.


Second Financial Group - Svenska handelsbanken "- includes a merger other than the bank itself around a group of financial brokers Anders Valle and Erik Pensera and family groups Stenbekov and чемпе. But here families stva do not play a significant role.

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