суббота, 22 августа 2009 г.

Public sector

Public sector

The crucial role of the public sector in Sweden - the accumulation and re-allocation of significant funds for social and economic goals under the concept of the Swedish model. The public sector has two levels of property owners: the central government and local (communal-regional) authorities. The lower level is sometimes provided in the form of communal ownership. They, together representing ownership of a single entity, time-lichayutsya as the place in the economy, and on the scale (in each case, but not in the aggregate) of activities.




Public sector and public property - a different concept. Under the state property is considered to be an enterprise owned by the State in whole or in part (joint ownership). The share of state ownership in Sweden is very low. By contrast, the size of the public sector, which can be described as the amount of state intervention in economic life, Sweden took the developed countries first.
The size of the public sector can be measured in such terms as the share of government spending, consumption taxes in GDP, population, employment in the public sector. In 1988, it employs 31% of the working population, government consumption amounted to 30% of GDP and public investment - 3%. The share of public expenditures, including consumption, investment and transfers, up to 61% of GDP in 1989, it increased from 33% in 1960 to 45% in 1970, 50% in 1975 and 67% in 1982 ( record of the capitalist world). It then declined slightly. Over the past decade, the public sector increased in all countries, but the most active - in Sweden.
Communal ownership is very limited and allowed by law in the field of public utilities and housing.




Nationalized enterprises mostly concentrated in the raw material of new industries: mining, steel, and shipbuilding, com-munalnyh services and transport. In these sectors on nationalized or state-owned enterprises accounted for more than half of all goods and services. Their main goal - enlargement of production with the achievement of the profit. However, the end of the 70's was characterized by expansion of loss-making, especially after the nationalization of bourgeois coalition government in 1977, Su-dostroitelnyh and private steel companies, and further mergers as a result of the structural crisis in these industries in order to preserve employment. The Government is actively subsidized these companies until they returned to power by the Social Democrats in 1982 is not finished with politics "hro-feeding by ducks."




State ownership takes the form of a joint stock company lines, or state-owned enterprises. The latter have considerable freedom of action in the financial and personnel matters. Solutions for the price they are taken as their own. They must cover costs and make profits on invested capital.
Established in 1970 to coordinate the activities of state enterprises holding Statsferetag "was reorganized in 1983, when it emerged a group of major companies involved in extraction and processing of raw materials, while remaining shiesya entered the company, known as" Prokordia " . Now she brings about 15 companies in the chemical, pharmaceutical, brewery industry, small shinostroenii, production of consumer goods and services. In 1987, the number of employment mentioned in Prokordii "of 25 thousand people.




In addition to the Prokordii in the number of public and mixed enterprises are mining company LKAB, pulp and paper Assi and NSO metallur-ological Svenska much, "shipbuilding" Tselsius and Commercial Bank "Nur dbanken." In 1987, the number of employees in these firms amounted to 48 thousand people, and in public companies - around 150 thousand people.




Public administration are designed to fulfill specific purposes and in some cases, by law a monopoly. In mail and communications - the two largest public monopolies - accounted for over 60% of all workers in state enterprises. Another important area - transportation. Shved-profit State Railways account for 95% of all zhel. roads in Sweden and they are 33 thousand people. About half of electricity generation accounted for public administration "Vattenfall. In recent years it also has begun research in the field of new energy sources (solar, wind and water) and conventional (coal, peat and natural gas).



The Central Government has a critical impact on the economy of the various economic instruments. The main of them - the state budget.



In Sweden, more than 50% of public expenditures account for transfer payments, ie the transfer of income in the private sector (households and enterprises), including pensions, housing subsidies, child allowances, agricultural and industrial subsidies. Also included are payments of interest on state debt.



Remaining after deduction of transfer payments from general government expenditure accounted for public consumption and investment. For public consumption accounts for about 90% of the outstanding amount, including almost 2 / 3 spent on health, education, public administration documentation, etc. Much of public consumption consists of wages of state employees - health care workers, teachers, etc. The bulk of public expenditures are for health and social services, protection of the environment well (about 30%), education (about 21%), electricity and water motion (12%), recreation and culture (5%), transport and telecommunications (5%).



The basis of the Swedish social insurance system - the different types of social benefits, which are also an important tool for policy distribution. In 1988, transfers from the social insurance sector domestic economy cial was 109 billion crowns, including more than 50% - retirement. Total costs of social insurance sector reached 134 billion crowns.



Financing of public expenditure in Sweden complex. Various items of the public sector have their own sources of income. In addition, the municipality, Landsting sector and social insurance are of the Dothan, mainly from the central government. For the last main source of income - indirect revenues.



In 1988, taxes and social contributions paid by the state-ment amounted to 340 billion kronor, or 90% of all central government revenues (378 billion Kč). 50% of this amount are indirect taxes, 15% - taxes for social insurance.



For local authorities, the main source of finance - income tax-gi (60%). Public transfers to municipality in 1988 amounted to 67 billion kroner, or 25% of communes (270 billion crowns), and are subsidized communication us a low tax, tax loss compensation, assistance and subsidies, diyami on investment.
In the social services sector contributions of entrepreneurs and workers in the social insurance - the main source of income.




The public sector in most developed service industries. In social services, Gakh, constituting half of all service sectors, the share of the state - 92%, including in health - 92%, in education and R & D - 88.7%, social insurance - 98.2%. In general, the statistics on the state accounts for 49% of employment in the services sector, while taking into account the state-owned companies - 56%.



The public sector is important for economic efficiency. This is facilitated by, for example, good quality and low costs for items such important public services like transport and communication, the education system. This clearly shows the interaction of private and public sector: the growth in revenues from the first use through tax and other revenues to the state budget to increase primarily public services, which in turn contributes to greater economic efficiency, where the foundation is the private sector.