воскресенье, 19 июля 2009 г.

Private Sector 2

However, it dramatically increased the number of Swedes, who aktsiyami.Eto explained as a reduction of private equity portfolios of individual owners, as well as the rapidly growing number of companies listed on the Stockholm Stock birzhe.Vazhnuyu the role played by the emergence of a new group of individual owners of the shares after the creation in 1978 various joint-stock-investment fondov.Sberezheniya in these so-called global funds managed by banks or companies receive a variety of tax subsidies from the government. Until 1984, investors received a discount of 30% tax on their annual savings, in addition to non-taxable dividend and increase shareholder value. In 1984, the tax credit was abolished, but other drivers were. In 1985, for these investment funds accounted for 6% of the shares, and this share has continued to grow gradually.

In recent years, great interest in Swedish stocks showed foreign investors. By the end of 1985, they accounted for approximately 7% of the value of all shares. In addition, several Swedish companies have appeared on some zapadnoevro-European stock exchanges, as well as in New York and Tokyo, because of their desire-to eat better than in Sweden, the financial condition and the additional advertising-mu abroad.

The economy of Sweden is characterized by high levels of concentration of production and capital and monopolization in the leading industries. For large enterprises (employing over 500 people) holds about 40% of employment in industry and in small (up to 50 people) - 17%. This increase in concentration shown by the first and foremost at the level of large firms. In one of the 20 largest companies in labor-ed more than 40% of the workforce in the industry. The share of 200 largest companies lines accounted for 75% of output, employment, investment and exports of Sweden.

In recent years, the role of leading Swedish companies in the world economy has increased. In 1987, among the 500 largest non-US industrial companies there were 20 Swedish. Of course, one of the giants of the capitalist world, they are not included. Thus, a major Swedish company Volvo in size yields about turnover of almost 7 times the company the number one capitalist peace "General model torz" (15 billion dollars to 102 billion U.S. dollars) Leading Swedish industrial firms have a strong international orientation.

The economy of Sweden is very high monopolization proizvodstva.Ona most strong in such specialized industries as the manufacturing of ball bearings (SKF), automotive (Volvo and Saab-Scania), ferrous metallurgy (Svenska less) Electrical Engineering (Electrolux, ABB, Eriks-son "), woodworking, pulp and paper (Svenska cellulose," "students-ra", "Mu Dumshe app", etc.), aircraft (Saab-Scania) , pharmaceuticals (Ast-RA, Farmasia "), production of special steels (" Sandvik "," Avesta ").

In Sweden, a most powerful financial capital among North Europe accurate. He found its organizational expression in the financial group. Currently in Sweden, there are three financial groups. In chapter two of them (as adopted in the economic literature, the Swedish language "areas of the banks") are the leading private commercial banks - Skandinaviska enshilda Bank and Svenska handelsbanken ", with the first for all indicators lyam significantly surpasses its competitor. In the first half of the 80-ies on the formation of a third-chalos Financial Group (the "third bloc"), headed by the country's largest company - motor corporation "Volvo".

In the financial group Skandinaviska enshilda Bank, which controls 40% of exports, 20% of the country's GDP and provides 40% of employment in the industry of Sweden, consists of family groups Wallenberg, UNSO-new, Bonerov, Lundberg, Sederbergov. Among them stands out Wallén Berg family controlling the company, shareholder value of which exceeds 1 / 3 of the share capital of all listed firms. In general, approximately 25 companies have Wallenberg in 1986, turnover of CZK 250 billion and profits of about 18 billion kroner. In Sweden and abroad for their companies employ approximately 450 people. Wallenberg Empire is considered one of the largest in Western Europe.

Second Financial Group - Svenska handelsbanken "- includes a merger other than the bank itself around a group of financial brokers Anders Valle and Erik Pensera and family groups Stenbekov and чемпе. But here families stva do not play a significant role.

пятница, 10 июля 2009 г.

Private Sector

Leading role in the production of goods and services in Sweden, played by the private sector. It can be big business, the dominant industries, op-redelyayuschih export specialization, particularly in the manufacturing industry. The rest of the private sector consists of small and medium-sized firms. According to this criterion, private companies can be divided into 2 groups. One concerns a great number of small firms in which the founder, owner and managing director of the often one and the same litso.V another group includes large Company's registered on the Stock Exchange. Over the past decade in the ownership structure of the group have been big changes. Significantly decreased the percentage of shares owned by households (the population) and the private individual by the people - from 47% in 1975 to 21% in 1985, while the insurance, investment-onnye and non-financial companies, foundations, including Among the State General Pension Fund (VPF), has increased - from 53% in 1975. to 79% in 1985 (including 7% owned by foreigners). During the war period occurred after the fall of the share of very large individual shareholder - with 70% in 1951, with up to approximately 20% in 1985 - primarily due to higher tax rates on income and property.

Thus, the institutional ownership to a large extent replaced by private individuals. Currently, the 20 largest holders of equity portfolio - agencies. Particularly increased the proportion of non-financial, investment and insurance companies, which in 1985 accounted for 14, 14 and 10%. Enhancing the role of non-financial companies engaged in commercial activity completely, occurred due to various prichin.Nekotorye are introduced to them by subsidiaries on the stock exchange, while maintaining a significant and often-lyayuschuyu filing of the shares in its possession. Other selling a company or department of, receive as payment, buying shares of the company. Some large blocks of shares arising as a result of long-term close co-operation of firms. Routine was "strategic" investment in equities. This helped to high liquidity of many companies due to sales growth and profits since 1982, the leu, in particular, "Skanska" bought "Sandvik", "Volvo" - a significant portion "Farmasiya" and "Stura" - "Suidish Match."

среда, 8 июля 2009 г.

Mixed economy

The current economic system in Sweden is usually characterized as a mixed economy. It is based on the market on competitive terms with the active use of government regulation that represent No-economic basis of Swedish model. Under the mixed economy refers to the combination, the correlation and interaction of the basic forms of ownership in the capital of Sweden listicheskom market economy: private, public and cooperative the action. Each of these forms has taken its niche, performs its function in the on-tion system of economic and social interactions. The vast majority of (about 85%) of all Swedish companies employing over 50 people at-nadlezhat private capital. For private enterprises account for 75% of employment in the manufacturing sector, of which 8% are working in foreign-owned capital pitalu firms. The remainder is produced by the State and cooperatives, for each of 11-13%. The public sector expanded and the share of cooperative on almost unchanged from 1965.

In addition to these three forms of ownership, there are many companies with a mixed property company owned by trade unions, savings banks, etc. However, their share is very small.

понедельник, 6 июля 2009 г.

The main features of economic development part 3

In 1977 (the first time in 25 years) declined runway. Weak growth in the 1978-1980 biennium. replaced by another fall in 1981 Since the mid 70-ies of the growth rate of productivity of labor productivity has slowed, and in 1975-1984 he was. only 1.4% a year. Number of hours worked since the mid 60-ies decreased mainly due to legislative reforms of working hours, on the retirement age and leave. These reforms will take into account population growth and the proportion of employed women.

In order to restore the competitiveness of the government implemented a series of devaluations starting in August 1977 when the krona was devalued by 10%. At the same time, Sweden withdrew from the European monetary system, known as the "currency snake". However, the demand for new products and technological advances have led to an increase in the proportion of high-tech industries. Machinery for the latest period, strengthened its position. Rapidly and the pharmaceutical industry.

Since 1983, the situation has changed, and the Swedish economy, you start from the crisis-Bireh. As a result of two devaluations crown increased price competitiveness, which has led to increased exports. In 1883, WFP has increased by 2,4%, industrial production - by 5.1%, labor productivity - at 7.4%. In 1984 go-between growth WFP amounted to 4% - the highest rate since 1973, the main growth factor has again been exported. In the next two years the growth rate declined slightly from the slowdown in exports. Increasing incomes lead to increased cheniyu personal consumption, which has become an important catalyst for a prolonged economic recovery. In absolute terms the Air Force in the current prices of-lyal 1970 -172 billion crowns in 1980 - 525 billion in 1985 - 861 in 1989 - 1221 billion kroons.

In general, 80 years Sweden has had growth of runway just above the national average over Western Europe. The favorable global economic environment positively affected the Swedish industry. Production facilities were used by 90%, and in many industries, this figure was even higher. This required a significant amount of new investment. During the 1983-1989 biennium. volume of industrial investment has grown by more than 60%. The shortage of skilled labor and the great amount of absenteeism at work - the main reasons that hindered the expansion of industrial production. Despite this, the volume of production increased rapidly. Receipts and orders, profitability since 1982 find themselves at a high enough level. The high investment rate observed in the service sector, which is less dependent on market conditions. It is expressed primarily in the rationalization of production and saturation of electronic computer technology.

The leading trend of economic development in Sweden 80 years has been re-move from the traditional dependence on iron ore and steel to the good technology in the manufacture of transportation, electrical, communications, chemical and pharmaceutical products.

The main features of economic development part 2

In the interwar period, Sweden the rate of growth second only to United States runway. However, a serious blow to the economy suffered two deep economic crisis: in the 1921-1922 biennium. as a result of deflation after the First World War, which led to a drop in industrial production by 25% lower than in 1913, and in the early 30's, when unemployment among union members in 1933 g.sostavlyala 25%.
In the postwar period, Sweden's economy has developed rapidly. This was her "golden" years. The main factor in this development has been exported. Productivity growth averaged 5.1% per year in the first half of the 60's and 4.3% in the 1965-1974 biennium. This was due to significant investment and progress in employment policies.

In the 70-s growth slowed. After the energy crisis of 1973-1974. in the industry raised a number of serious problems. To a large extent, this was the result of a very deep and prolonged global crisis Sulfur-Dina 70-ies. Sweden was struck by the profound structural crisis. About 25% of industrial production accounted for by industries affected by the crisis: Mining mining, iron and steel, timber and shipbuilding. Increased international competition loss. On the world market came out countries with low labor costs-mi. Reduce the cost of transportation. Sharply increased crude oil prices. At the same time the competitiveness of Swedish industry has declined in the 1975-1976 biennium. When the cost of labor increased by about 40%. As a result, the Swedish industry has lost over 1975-1977 he. Almost 20% of its share in world rovom market.

Excess capacity and low world demand for iron and steel had a negative impact on the steel industry in Sweden. The timber industry lost its position under the pressure of competition, especially from North America. Big global excess capacity in the world shipbuilding industry, coupled with weak demand as the new ships, as well as the chartering of vessels dramatically reduced production in Sweden. Manufacture of shoes and clothes had a very serious competition from the hand of some developing countries, where labor costs were much lower than in Sweden. To avoid too drastic structural changes in the industry and quickly rising unemployment, the state since the mid 70's to early 80-ies has provided significant amounts of assistance from the affected sectors, particularly iron and steel, shipbuilding and mining industries.

пятница, 3 июля 2009 г.

The main features of economic development

Over one hundred years of backward (one of the poorest in Europe) countries, as it was in the middle of the XIX century., Became one of the most economically developed nations. In 1970, the value of industrial output per capita in Sweden in the first place in Europe.

Transforming the economy from a backward agrarian to industrial best promote the availability of large stocks of critical natural resources: iron ore, timber, hydropower. A huge external demand for Swedish iron ore and timber, the ability of Sweden to develop the resources and proximity to European markets in an era of high transport costs were the main factors of development.

In 70-ies of the last century, the Swedish iron ore and timber were needed for the industrialization of Europe. Increased export of Swedish industrialization of the country and contributed to the growth of urban population, which in turn led to the development of railways and construction. Based on Swedish inventions were created and quickly grow new companies in metallurgy and machine building. Although still dominated by sawmills and iron industry quickly developed pulp and paper industry, machine-building.

The proportion of the workforce in industry, 1870 and 1913 increased from 15 to 34%. Top of the First World War, agriculture still accounts for half of las-working population.

In the face of rapid population growth was the importance of emigration, primarily to North America. In the 1860-1930 biennium. have left the country 1.2 million Swedes. Emigration helped prevent starvation and mass unemployment. Sweden has avoided involvement in both world wars, which allowed not only to maintain-ing productive capacity and labor resources, but also greatly enriched in supplying warring countries and to restore the European economy.

среда, 1 июля 2009 г.

The Swedish model part 4 (last)

The Swedish model is based on the provisions that a decentralized market system of production is efficient, the state does not interfere with productive activity, and active labor market policies should be to minimize the social costs of a market economy. The point is to maximize the growth of production and the private sector as much as possible the redistribution of state profits through the tax system and the public sector to improve living standards, but without effect on the basis of production. This emphasis on the infrastructure elements and the collective cash funds.

This led to a very large state role in Sweden in the distribution, consumption and redistribution of national income through taxes and public expenditures have reached record levels. In the reformist ideology of this activity is called "functional socialism"

The Swedish model part 3

Among the specific factors, it is inherent in Sweden, it is necessary to include non-modified neutral foreign policy with 1814., Non-participation in both World War tries, a record for length of stay in power, Social Democratic Workers' Party, the historical tradition of peaceful transition to the new formations yes in particular from feudalism to capitalism, long-term well-gopriyatnye and stable development of economy, the dominance of reformism in the working motion approving these principles in its relations with the capital (they had become a symbol of the agreement between the leadership of trade unions and entrepreneurs-in lyami Saltsjöbaden in 1938 ), the search for compromises on the basis of the interests of various parties.

The economic impact of the development of a culture and historical background. An integral part of Swedish tradition is pre-preneurial. Even from the time of the Vikings in the Swedish company known for pro-production of weapons and jewelry. The first company in the world --
"Strura Kopparberg (founded over 700 years ago) was introduced in Sweden and is still included in the dozen largest exporters of the country.

The successful functioning of the economic system depends on the evolution of prices, the competitiveness of Swedish industry and economic growth. In particular, inflation - as a threat to equality, and the competitiveness of the Swedish economy. It should be used such methods of maintaining full employment, that does not lead to inflation and adverse impact on the economy. As shown, the dilemma between unemployment and inflation has been the Achilles heel of the Swedish model.

Since the mid 70-ies in response to the growing competition for foreign markets and have a deep economic crisis of the country marked oslozh-nilos, and the Swedish model has become a misfire. In particular, some industries, fell into a deep structural crisis, began to receive public assistance, in very large scale. But despite the gloomy predictions of many economists, Sweden was able to emerge from the crisis. The continued uninterrupted since 1983 economic growth showed that the Swedish model has been able to adapt to changed conditions and has shown its viability.

The Swedish model part2

Another way to determine the Swedish model is based on the fact that the Swedish policy clearly identifies two dominant goals: full employment and have ravnivanie revenues, which defines the methods of economic policy. An active policy on labor market vibrant and exceptionally large public sector (this is meant primarily the scope of redistribution, not public property) as a result of this policy.
Finally, in the broadest sense of the Swedish model - this is the whole complex of socio-economic and political realities in the country with its high standard of living and a wide scale of social policy. Thus, the notion of "the Swedish model-Del has no unambiguous interpretation.

The main objectives of the model, as already noted, for a long time been full employment and of income. Their dominance can be attributed to the unique strength of Swedish labor movement. More than half - from 1932 (except for the 1976-1982 biennium.)-Power is the Social Democratic Party of Sweden (SDRPSH). For decades SDRPSH works closely with the Central Union of Sweden, which strengthens the reformist ra-bochee movement in the country. Sweden is different from other countries for the adoption of full employment as the main and constant objective of economic policy, and Swedish people as a whole - an active supporter of her.

The quest for equity strongly developed in Sweden. When the leader of Social Democrats Per Albin Hansson in 1928, put forward the concept of Sweden as the "home people", which refers to common interests of the nation to create a common home, large groups of people outside the labor movement were able to take his views. In Sweden, social-democratic ideas attract a significant portion of the average word-s.

The Swedish model

The term "Swedish model" has arisen in connection with the formation of Sweden as one of the most developed in the socio-economic states. He appeared in the late 60's, when foreign observers began to celebrate the successful soche-tanie Sweden rapid economic growth with broad policy reforms in the social background of the relative free society. This image of a successful term and tranquility Sweden especially when contrasted strongly with the growth of social and political conflicts in the world.

Now the term is used in different meanings and has different meanings depending on the fact that it is invested. Some note сме-shanny of the Swedish economy, which combines the market and government regulation, the dominant private property in the area of production and socialization of consumption.

Another characteristic of post-war Sweden - the specificity of relations between capital and labor in the labor market. For decades, an important part of the Swedish reality was centralized collective bargaining in wages, with the participation of powerful organizations of trade unions and businessmen as the main actors, the policy of trade unions based on the principles of solidarity between different groups of workers.