вторник, 29 сентября 2009 г.
covers all post-war years, increasing both the volume of output,
and its scientific and technological potential, constantly reducing the gap
the technical level between domestic cars and the best-Zar
However, the general unstable economic and political circum -
save your settings prevailing in the country in recent years, led first to the
slower growth, and in 1991 - 1994 gg. - And substantially
reduce the production of automotive engineering, the responsibilities
research and development work. This trial -
Lem has become particularly acute in research institutes
industry: they are almost completely stopped the search research
Nia and the development of advanced conceptual machines, their parts and
systems in the near future, of course, affect the technical
Český level of our cars.
The main reasons for this situation - this is a significant reduction
tion of public financing of scientific developments, as well as
disinterest enterprises to invest in long-term
projects. There was a third reason: some confusion ruko -
lished research and development organi -
zations, their unwillingness to seek new forms of work organization, and its a -
her activities. However, in recent years, many scientific and pro -
tion and organizations, institutes and industrial design
unit, together with the newly created public and commercial
cal structures have begun to adapt to new conditions. Pre -
kazatelstvo to - renewal in 1993, works to create
automotive development programs in Russia and a number
other CIS countries, the development avtobusostroeniya etc.
The place and importance of the automotive industry in the economy
State of affairs in the domestic automotive industry in many ways
defined in the present instability in all spheres of ob -
substantially life, especially in industrial production in the tse -
scrap in the country. According to Goskomstat of Russia, to slow the decline
production in the current year remains elusive. In general, for the nine-IU
syatsev 1995, industrial output fell by 17,6%.
Rapid increase in prices due to the liberalization in 1992
caused the insolvency of enterprises, led to a shortage of about -
of company funds, control the production process and the destabilization
their financial situation. There have been a sharp decline in investment
activity, the withdrawal of long-term construction programs. On the deep -
sideways phasing out the business activity indicates, for example,
the fact that the launch of the 393 objects automotive indus -
ty, funded by the federal budget, only three
put into operation and at three sites partially implemented
In the automotive industry, as in all engineering,
intensified centrifugal tendencies in the relations between traditional
MI partners, collapsing cooperations enterprises that
were separated by the boundaries of newly formed independent
Highlights of the automotive indus -
ty for 1991 (more recent data could not be found) are given in
Table 1, taken from .
The table shows that although the rate of growth of output-that
Varna products at comparable prices of automobile in 1991
year and amounted to 103,8% for the rest of the indicators observed
decline. Growth in profit is due to only 3.29 times as high
prices and does not reflect the state of "health" industry.
In the automotive industry employs, according to
1991 1,114,336 people. That makes 97,2% of the workforce in 1990, in
including the number of industrial personnel equal
nyalas 963,386 people. (97% by 1990), 771,241 of them working people.
(96.8% by 1990).
Significant excess of revenue growth over the growth of productivity
CONTRACT PERIOD labor was one of the main causes of inflationary pro -
processes that have come out with special force in 1991-1993.
Profitability (yield) Automobile Manufacturer
lished in 1991 amounted to 39,3% (as a percentage of cost).
Automotive is still a highly profitable
branches of industrial production Russia.
Modern territorial organization of the motor pro -
Factors influencing the placement industry.
Factors placing assumed  set of different
GOVERNMENTAL spatial uneven conditions and resources, with IP -
use that achieve the best results in terms of
selected criteria and the goal placed a productive
Distinguish the following groups of factors: natural - the number -
WIDE reserves and quality of natural resources, mining and geo -
methodological and other conditions of their production and use, the Climate -
Kie, hydrogeological, orography, etc.; ecological
cal - security and constructive activities for Lean JS -
use of natural resources and promote healthy living and
labor conditions for the population, technical - and achieved the WHO -
sible level of technique and technology, socio - demographic --
availability of labor resources, the state of social infra -
ruktury; economic - economic, geographical and transport
position, cost, capital and operating costs, construction time -
ment, production efficiency, purpose and quality of pro -
duktsii, territorial, economic relations etc.
Positioning the automotive industry does not affect commodity
and fuel and energy resources, weakly affect consumption regions
finished products, is greatly affected by the workforce.
понедельник, 21 сентября 2009 г.
Undeniable success of the Swedish labor market. Sweden remained extremely low unemployment in the postwar period, including the mid 70's, when serious structural problems have led to mass unemployment in most developed capitalist countries.
There are certain achievements in the long struggle for equality. Full employment is in itself an important factor in alignment: a society with full employment avoids the differences in incomes and living standards resulting from mass unemployment, because long-term unemployment leads to losses in income. Incomes and living standards are aligned in two ways in the Swedish society. The solidarity in wages strives to achieve equal pay for equal work. The government uses a system of progressive taxation and extensive public service.
Sweden has been less successful in other areas: prices rose faster than in most other OECD countries, GDP grew more slowly than in some Western European countries, labor productivity barely grew. The fall in labor productivity growth - an international phenomenon, caused by, inter alia, the expansion of the service sector, which is less able to rationalize it. To some extent, an adverse development in Sweden due to a large public sector, which, by definition, does not increase productivity. Thus, inflation and relatively modest economic growth are certain the price paid for a policy of full employment and equality.
The weakest of the model was the complexity of the combination of full employment and price stability. But the 80-ies, these difficulties are not manifest as a serious threat to the overall model. The reasons lie in the policy. The Social Democrats had a government, relying on the minority in rikstage, and the position of the party is waning. The government recognized the need for a strong fiscal policy, but found no support etou in parliament. Restrictive policies generally unpopular, and the government stay in power for short: national elections are held in 3 years, and the government need determination and political courage in curbing high conjuncture.
Thus, the Swedish model was under threat. Saving the future of the two main objectives of the Swedish model - full employment and equality - seem to require new methods, which must conform to the changed conditions. Only time will tell to see if specific features of the Swedish model - low unemployment, a policy of solidarity in the area of wages, centralized negotiation of wages, only large public sector and, accordingly, a heavy tax burden, or the only model consistent with the special circumstances of the postwar period.
четверг, 17 сентября 2009 г.
The peculiarity of the Swedish economy is the role and importance of the cooperative movement in the country. It is distributed throughout the country and has a very strong position. Cooperatives have contributed to the transformation of Sweden from an agrarian to an industrialized, prosperous country. An important role played by the cooperative movement in agriculture, industry, retail trade, housing and other areas.
Cooperatives are divided into production and consumption. Production cooperatives with a total number of employed about 50 thousand people dominate the production of milk and meat, and occupy an important place in the manufacture of other products, as well as in pulp and paper industry. Consumer cooperatives employing 70 thousand people, of whom about half are the two largest, play an important role in the retail trade.
In the mixed economy, the cooperative movement acts as a "third force", or "third alternative" to private and public property, based on the principles of democracy and using the broad popular support. In some areas - especially among consumer co-operatives - Co-operation became countervailing force in the market for ordinary people, for example in matters of pricing. In the past, consumer cooperatives survived many battles with the private cartels. This role they play and now, albeit in less dramatic forms.
In the co-operatives in Sweden accounts for 5% of industrial production and all that 7,5% of employment in industry, 14% in retail trade and 5% of the total working naseleniya.V Sweden 2 / 3 of households in some way related to cooperatives. Consumer cooperatives account for 20% of sales of goods of daily demand. From 1 / 2 to 2 / 3 of the food consumed in Sweden is produced by farmers belonging to cooperatives, and milk and meat, this share is 99% and 80% respectively.
The term "cooperative" usually refers to an economic concept, based on joint action and mutual aid. The cooperative enterprise should have a direct connection with the needs and economic interests of its members. The principles of the cooperative movement: the freedom of membership - one can not be excluded, except in cases of violation of the statute; independence from political parties and faiths, democratic control - one member - one vote "; limiting returns on invested a share, cooperative society - an association of individuals and no capital accumulation of capital development and economic independence, educational activities, interaction cooperatives.
The cooperative movement emerged in Sweden in the second half of XIX century. But the decisive breakthrough came in the 90 years of the last century, and following him decades due to industrial revolution and the emergence of a growing working class in the new urban areas. The cooperative movement has found support among members of other popular movements: the "free" religious, temperance, peasants, workers - through its political and trade union units. In 1896-1899 gg. appeared more than 200 new consumer cooperative associations. In 1899 they formed the Cooperative Union (KF).
KF - a national organization of the Swedish self-governing societies, consumer cooperatives. The number of members gradually increased, and the number of societies decreased markedly as a result of mergers, with 950 in 1920 to 138 in 1987. Company differ in the number of members from 306 thousand to 67. All in all, consumer cooperatives in Sweden has 2 million people. KB is involved in trading, manufacturing, banking, publishing, tourism and educational activities. CP has more than 80 sales offices, including overseas, some food processing plants, particularly flour, bakeries, meat packing, brewing and canning, as well as several industrial enterprises.
Scope of cooperatives wide; than those mentioned there are housing cooperatives, insurance, travel, automotive, and even funerals.
Thus, cooperatives play a very important role in modern Swedish society. But occurred in 50-60 years, changes to the consolidation of economic enterprises to reduce costs have had an impact on cooperatives, as well as other types of business. This trend has become a serious threat to democracy in cooperatives. Currently, the cooperative movement seeks to strengthen the influence of rank and file members in the affairs of cooperatives.
Each socio-economic model and has created for specific purposes. In the Swedish model was paramount, social policy, which aims to create a more or less normal conditions for the reproduction of labor (especially skilled) - the fact of exceptional importance to Sweden, bearing in mind the specifics of its development and place in the international division of labor - and is a tool for reducing social tension, neutralization of class antagonisms and conflicts.
In the Swedish model of social policy contributes to the transformation of social relations in the spirit of social justice and equalization of income smoothing of the class inequalities and eventually build a new society based on democratic socialism, the welfare state.
The standard of living in Sweden is considered one of the highest in the world and the highest in Europe. Living standards determined by a complex of different indicators. GDP and consumption per capita, Sweden is one of the first places in Europe. For the equalization of income, Sweden is ahead of all other countries in the world. The ratio of women to pay the wages of men in Sweden, the highest in the world
According to one of the goals of the Swedish model - equity, revenues are aligned very progressive income tax system. Extensive redistribution through the social insurance system contributes to a significant reduction in income disparities. In 1986 in Sweden to 20% of households accounted for 37.5% of income on the poorest 20% - 12% (for the U.S., respectively 43,7% and 4,6%). Markedly reduced the pay gap between men and women in 1987, the average wage for women was 89.6% men's wages (for comparison: in Italy - 84,8%, Germany - 73% in the UK - 70.5%; Japan - 48.5%).
After prolonged growth of net (after tax) income in the postwar period, real (constant prices) net household income in 1981-1983. decreased. In 1984-1989. an annual average they grew by 2,2%. The real incomes of workers lagged behind the rate of growth of incomes of other segments of the population (eg, retirees). In 1950 the net income of households accounted for 70% of GDP. By 1989 this proportion had fallen to about 50%. Direct taxes and social security contributions from the population grew significantly faster than the reverse flow of remittances from the public sector to households.
More than half of households have ownership of tangible property and financial assets in the form of bank accounts, bonds, stocks and other requirements are about 40%. On cars, boats and other consumer durables account for another 10%. Property is distributed less equally than income, but over the past decade has been a noticeable trend towards a more uniform distribution. Distribution of property in Sweden, more even than in most other countries.
Indicators of living standards (per 1000 people.) In 1987
Countries GDP per capita (U.S. $) Telephone (pcs) Television (items) Cars (pcs) Consumption
elektroen-ies per capita (kWh) Unemployment (%)
Sweden 18876 890 393 420 1707 9 1.6
Germany 18280 640 379 463 6900 8.7
England 11765 524 346 318 5477 8.4
U.S. 18338 760 813 559 1120 4 5.4
Japan 19465 555 261 241 5733 2.5
France 15818 608 332 394 5870 10
Income in 1987
Size of income Number of Men Women Total
0 20 278 21 755 42 033
1-39 999 476 061 905 017 1 381 078
40 000-79 999 560 063 1 139 362 1 699 425
80 000-119 999 1 029 254 1 020 719 2 049 973
120 000-159 999 778 000 320 563 1 098 563
160 000-199 999 274 161 69 438 343 599
200 000-299 999 186 304 29 199 215 503
300 000-499 999 52 067 5 756 57 823
500 000 and above 10 707 1 227 11 934
суббота, 22 августа 2009 г.
The crucial role of the public sector in Sweden - the accumulation and re-allocation of significant funds for social and economic goals under the concept of the Swedish model. The public sector has two levels of property owners: the central government and local (communal-regional) authorities. The lower level is sometimes provided in the form of communal ownership. They, together representing ownership of a single entity, time-lichayutsya as the place in the economy, and on the scale (in each case, but not in the aggregate) of activities.
Public sector and public property - a different concept. Under the state property is considered to be an enterprise owned by the State in whole or in part (joint ownership). The share of state ownership in Sweden is very low. By contrast, the size of the public sector, which can be described as the amount of state intervention in economic life, Sweden took the developed countries first.
The size of the public sector can be measured in such terms as the share of government spending, consumption taxes in GDP, population, employment in the public sector. In 1988, it employs 31% of the working population, government consumption amounted to 30% of GDP and public investment - 3%. The share of public expenditures, including consumption, investment and transfers, up to 61% of GDP in 1989, it increased from 33% in 1960 to 45% in 1970, 50% in 1975 and 67% in 1982 ( record of the capitalist world). It then declined slightly. Over the past decade, the public sector increased in all countries, but the most active - in Sweden.
Communal ownership is very limited and allowed by law in the field of public utilities and housing.
Nationalized enterprises mostly concentrated in the raw material of new industries: mining, steel, and shipbuilding, com-munalnyh services and transport. In these sectors on nationalized or state-owned enterprises accounted for more than half of all goods and services. Their main goal - enlargement of production with the achievement of the profit. However, the end of the 70's was characterized by expansion of loss-making, especially after the nationalization of bourgeois coalition government in 1977, Su-dostroitelnyh and private steel companies, and further mergers as a result of the structural crisis in these industries in order to preserve employment. The Government is actively subsidized these companies until they returned to power by the Social Democrats in 1982 is not finished with politics "hro-feeding by ducks."
State ownership takes the form of a joint stock company lines, or state-owned enterprises. The latter have considerable freedom of action in the financial and personnel matters. Solutions for the price they are taken as their own. They must cover costs and make profits on invested capital.
Established in 1970 to coordinate the activities of state enterprises holding Statsferetag "was reorganized in 1983, when it emerged a group of major companies involved in extraction and processing of raw materials, while remaining shiesya entered the company, known as" Prokordia " . Now she brings about 15 companies in the chemical, pharmaceutical, brewery industry, small shinostroenii, production of consumer goods and services. In 1987, the number of employment mentioned in Prokordii "of 25 thousand people.
In addition to the Prokordii in the number of public and mixed enterprises are mining company LKAB, pulp and paper Assi and NSO metallur-ological Svenska much, "shipbuilding" Tselsius and Commercial Bank "Nur dbanken." In 1987, the number of employees in these firms amounted to 48 thousand people, and in public companies - around 150 thousand people.
Public administration are designed to fulfill specific purposes and in some cases, by law a monopoly. In mail and communications - the two largest public monopolies - accounted for over 60% of all workers in state enterprises. Another important area - transportation. Shved-profit State Railways account for 95% of all zhel. roads in Sweden and they are 33 thousand people. About half of electricity generation accounted for public administration "Vattenfall. In recent years it also has begun research in the field of new energy sources (solar, wind and water) and conventional (coal, peat and natural gas).
The Central Government has a critical impact on the economy of the various economic instruments. The main of them - the state budget.
In Sweden, more than 50% of public expenditures account for transfer payments, ie the transfer of income in the private sector (households and enterprises), including pensions, housing subsidies, child allowances, agricultural and industrial subsidies. Also included are payments of interest on state debt.
Remaining after deduction of transfer payments from general government expenditure accounted for public consumption and investment. For public consumption accounts for about 90% of the outstanding amount, including almost 2 / 3 spent on health, education, public administration documentation, etc. Much of public consumption consists of wages of state employees - health care workers, teachers, etc. The bulk of public expenditures are for health and social services, protection of the environment well (about 30%), education (about 21%), electricity and water motion (12%), recreation and culture (5%), transport and telecommunications (5%).
The basis of the Swedish social insurance system - the different types of social benefits, which are also an important tool for policy distribution. In 1988, transfers from the social insurance sector domestic economy cial was 109 billion crowns, including more than 50% - retirement. Total costs of social insurance sector reached 134 billion crowns.
Financing of public expenditure in Sweden complex. Various items of the public sector have their own sources of income. In addition, the municipality, Landsting sector and social insurance are of the Dothan, mainly from the central government. For the last main source of income - indirect revenues.
In 1988, taxes and social contributions paid by the state-ment amounted to 340 billion kronor, or 90% of all central government revenues (378 billion Kč). 50% of this amount are indirect taxes, 15% - taxes for social insurance.
For local authorities, the main source of finance - income tax-gi (60%). Public transfers to municipality in 1988 amounted to 67 billion kroner, or 25% of communes (270 billion crowns), and are subsidized communication us a low tax, tax loss compensation, assistance and subsidies, diyami on investment.
In the social services sector contributions of entrepreneurs and workers in the social insurance - the main source of income.
The public sector in most developed service industries. In social services, Gakh, constituting half of all service sectors, the share of the state - 92%, including in health - 92%, in education and R & D - 88.7%, social insurance - 98.2%. In general, the statistics on the state accounts for 49% of employment in the services sector, while taking into account the state-owned companies - 56%.
The public sector is important for economic efficiency. This is facilitated by, for example, good quality and low costs for items such important public services like transport and communication, the education system. This clearly shows the interaction of private and public sector: the growth in revenues from the first use through tax and other revenues to the state budget to increase primarily public services, which in turn contributes to greater economic efficiency, where the foundation is the private sector.
воскресенье, 19 июля 2009 г.
However, it dramatically increased the number of Swedes, who aktsiyami.Eto explained as a reduction of private equity portfolios of individual owners, as well as the rapidly growing number of companies listed on the Stockholm Stock birzhe.Vazhnuyu the role played by the emergence of a new group of individual owners of the shares after the creation in 1978 various joint-stock-investment fondov.Sberezheniya in these so-called global funds managed by banks or companies receive a variety of tax subsidies from the government. Until 1984, investors received a discount of 30% tax on their annual savings, in addition to non-taxable dividend and increase shareholder value. In 1984, the tax credit was abolished, but other drivers were. In 1985, for these investment funds accounted for 6% of the shares, and this share has continued to grow gradually.
In recent years, great interest in Swedish stocks showed foreign investors. By the end of 1985, they accounted for approximately 7% of the value of all shares. In addition, several Swedish companies have appeared on some zapadnoevro-European stock exchanges, as well as in New York and Tokyo, because of their desire-to eat better than in Sweden, the financial condition and the additional advertising-mu abroad.
The economy of Sweden is characterized by high levels of concentration of production and capital and monopolization in the leading industries. For large enterprises (employing over 500 people) holds about 40% of employment in industry and in small (up to 50 people) - 17%. This increase in concentration shown by the first and foremost at the level of large firms. In one of the 20 largest companies in labor-ed more than 40% of the workforce in the industry. The share of 200 largest companies lines accounted for 75% of output, employment, investment and exports of Sweden.
In recent years, the role of leading Swedish companies in the world economy has increased. In 1987, among the 500 largest non-US industrial companies there were 20 Swedish. Of course, one of the giants of the capitalist world, they are not included. Thus, a major Swedish company Volvo in size yields about turnover of almost 7 times the company the number one capitalist peace "General model torz" (15 billion dollars to 102 billion U.S. dollars) Leading Swedish industrial firms have a strong international orientation.
The economy of Sweden is very high monopolization proizvodstva.Ona most strong in such specialized industries as the manufacturing of ball bearings (SKF), automotive (Volvo and Saab-Scania), ferrous metallurgy (Svenska less) Electrical Engineering (Electrolux, ABB, Eriks-son "), woodworking, pulp and paper (Svenska cellulose," "students-ra", "Mu Dumshe app", etc.), aircraft (Saab-Scania) , pharmaceuticals (Ast-RA, Farmasia "), production of special steels (" Sandvik "," Avesta ").
In Sweden, a most powerful financial capital among North Europe accurate. He found its organizational expression in the financial group. Currently in Sweden, there are three financial groups. In chapter two of them (as adopted in the economic literature, the Swedish language "areas of the banks") are the leading private commercial banks - Skandinaviska enshilda Bank and Svenska handelsbanken ", with the first for all indicators lyam significantly surpasses its competitor. In the first half of the 80-ies on the formation of a third-chalos Financial Group (the "third bloc"), headed by the country's largest company - motor corporation "Volvo".
In the financial group Skandinaviska enshilda Bank, which controls 40% of exports, 20% of the country's GDP and provides 40% of employment in the industry of Sweden, consists of family groups Wallenberg, UNSO-new, Bonerov, Lundberg, Sederbergov. Among them stands out Wallén Berg family controlling the company, shareholder value of which exceeds 1 / 3 of the share capital of all listed firms. In general, approximately 25 companies have Wallenberg in 1986, turnover of CZK 250 billion and profits of about 18 billion kroner. In Sweden and abroad for their companies employ approximately 450 people. Wallenberg Empire is considered one of the largest in Western Europe.
Second Financial Group - Svenska handelsbanken "- includes a merger other than the bank itself around a group of financial brokers Anders Valle and Erik Pensera and family groups Stenbekov and чемпе. But here families stva do not play a significant role.